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Glorious Sinharaja the world Heritage 

 

Sinharaja rain Forest has gained the highest  respect of the locals and foreigners, at the same time varieties of  flora and fauna get a very height position. Huge trees and creepers cover every part of this forest. We have about 926 endemic plants of which  495 are found in Sinharaja. This is something special of this tropical  rain forest out of the 6 groups nearly 450 species of wild life found in Sinharaja 137  are endemic to Sri Lanka, so we have to take into consideration the value of this vast rain forest. Among all these, there are butterflies, fishes, amphibians reptiles, birds and mammals form a main group, other than that snails, spiders and many other species of creatures are also a part of the bio diversity. According to the dates recorded  in 2012, Sinharaja is the home of more than 100 endangered animals. Out of the 245 special varieties of butterflies about 100 live in and around  Sinharaja in their natural habitat 9 of these species are endemic to Sri Lanka.

 

            According to the geographical features of Sri Lankan, Sinharaja can be considered as a rain forests of the highest rainfall throughout the year. From the past Sinharaja has faced many difficulties. In 1978 it was named as man and bio diversity, in 1988  hectares 11187  was mentioned as National  forest land, in 1989 UNESCO included Sinharaja as a world heritage site. This was of historical importance.

 

 

The present Situation of Sinharaja and your duty.

 

One of the most biologically diverse forests in the world,Sinharaja forest  which is also a World Heritage siteis in our country. Many environmentalists are of the view that the Sinharaja Forest which has a rich bio-diversity is being slowly but surely destroyed due to the lack of stringent laws to protect the fauna and the flora of this forest. Forest are an intregal part of the environment and need to be protected and preserved.So, if and when you do visit any of the country's forests, especially the great Sinharaja Forest make sure you leave the place as it was, without polluting the place or causing damage to even the smallest of plants there.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sinharaja diversity

 

 

                                                 Mountains  associated with Sinharaja

         

                                                 West Hinipitigala Mountain                Height 1170 M

                                                 Pathinigala                                             Height 605 M

                                                 Sinhalagala                                            Height 742 M

                                                 Kohila Arabay                                        Height 757 M

                                                 Mulavalla                                                Height 760 M

                                                 Dothalugala                                           Height 769 M

                                                 Kosgulana                                              Height 779 M

                                                 Thibbottagala                                        Height 904 M

 

 

 

                                                  Rivers and water ways flowing from Sinharaja

  

                                                   Gin Ganga

                                                   Kalu Ganga

                                                   Napola Dola

                                                   Kosgulana Ganga

                                                   Pitakalae Ganga

                                                   Maha Dola

                                                   Kalukandawa Ala

                                                   Asranuwa Dola

 

 

                                                  Waterfalls that associate Sinharaja

 

                                                 1.      Duwili Alla                                       6. Molan Alla

                                                 2.      Brrahmana Alla                              7. Beraliya Dola Alla

                                                 3.      Ura Watunu Alla                             8. Malmova Alla

                                                 4.      Hathmalae Alla                               9. Hathbinna Alla

                                                 5.      Gal Oruwa Alla                               10. Kakunu Alla

 

 

                                                 Occupation Based on Sinharaja

                               

                                                 Small tea plantations.

                                                 Industries using canes.

                                                 Production of cinnamen and products connected with it.

                                                 Cardamom plantation.

                                                 Collectimg Incense.

                                                 Production of  treacle and jaggery.

                                                 Collecting bee honey.

 

 

 

How Sinharaja got its name

 

A lion lived in the forest region, it had created several damages to the civilians. People of this area thought of various ways to kill the lion, but they could't get any solutions.In order to protect the civilians from the lion a gaint came forward.This powerful gaint killed the lion by hitting with stones. The cave in which the lion lived was named 'Sinha Gala' and the place where the stones were located to kill the lion was named 'Yodha Gal Goda'. The forest in which the lion lived was called 'Sinharaja' forest.

 

 

 Sinharaja Border

 

To the North-Napola Dola and Kongalama Ganga.

To the South - Maha Dola and Ganga.

To the East- Morningside Beverly Estate.

To the  West - Kalukandawa Ala and Kudawa Ganga.

 

 

The Trees of Sinharaja can be divided into 5 groups accorrding to their heights,

 

 

The main group of 5 layers are mentioned below.

 

Emergent Layer

Canopy layer

Sub Canopy layer

Understory layer

Ground layer

 

                                                                 Emergent layer

 

                                                           very tall trees more than 45 m in height belong to Emergent layer.

     Some of the very special tall trees of Emergent layer can be seen are, (Scientific names),

 

  Dipterocarpus zeylanicus, Dipterocarpus hispidus, Shorea spp, Dipterocarpus glandulosus

                                                                         

      

                                                                Canopy layer

 

                                                              A little less in height of 30 m and 45m belong to Canopy layer.

  Some of the trees of canopy layer can be seen are, (Scientific names)

 

  Mesua nagassarium, Mangifera zeylanica, Shorea worthingtonii, Anisophyllea, Cinnamomoides,

Shorea trapeziflora, Campnosperma, Zeylanicum, Homalium zeylanicum, Artocarpus nobilis,

Cullenia ceylanica, Calophyllum trapezifolium, Palaquium grande, Gordonia ceylanica

Shorea stipularis, Bhesa ceylanica, Kokoona zelanica, Myristica dactyloides, Syzygium rubicundum

Cyathocalyx zeylanica, Terminalia zeylanica, Garcinia terpnophylla, Shorea trapezifolia, Madhuca fluva,

Litsea gardneri

 

                                                       

                                                          A little less in height the sub Canopy layer.

 

                                                                 Trees that grow to the height of 15 m - 30 m form the sub Canopy layer.

Some of the sub   canopy layers can be seen are (Scientific names),

 

Cheatocarpus castanocarpus, Cullenia rosayroana, Carallia calyeina, Caryota urens, Semecarpus gardneri,

Glenniea unijuga, Calophyllum bracteatum, Elaeocarpus amoenus, Syzygium neesianum, Carallia brachita,

Syzygium operculatum, Dichilanthe zeylanica, Hydnocarpus octandra, Palaquium rubiginosum, Vateria copallifera

Masixia tetandra, Chaetocarpus coriaceus, Mesua ferrea, Syzygium makul

 

 

                                                         Trees of medium height belong to Understory layer.

 

                                      Trees between the height of 5 m and 15 m can be identified as Understory layer,(Scientific names),

 

Garcinia hermonii, Xylopia championii, Ochlandra spp, Gomphia serrata, Humboldtia laurifolia,

Agrostistachys coriaceae, Symplocos cochinchienis, Eurya acuminta, Nargedia macrocarpa, Dironnira scabrida,

Syzygium cordifolium, Elaeocarpus subvillosus, Schumacheria castaneifolia, Dillenia triquetra, Cimmamomum dubium,

Harpullia arborea, Gironniera scabrida, Fagrea ceyanica, Goniothalamus thwaitesii

 

 

                                                         Less tall trees  belong to Ground layer

 

                                Low grown trees less than  5 m are identified as    Ground layer Some of the ground layers can

be seen are, (Scientific names)

 

Gaerthera vaginas, Apama siliquosa, Syzygium rubicundum, Wendlandia bicnpiata, Clerodendrum pedunculata,

Acronychia pedunculata, Quassia indica, Symplocos coronata, Listea longifolia, Aporusa lanceolata, Bridelia moonii,

Strombosia nana, Blechnum orientale, Hediyotis fruticosa, Clerodendrum infortunatum, Melastoma malabathricum,

Pavetta indica

 

 

 

Some of the herbal plants associated with Sinharaja forest, 

 

(Scientific names),

Zeuxine regia, Anoectochilus seaceus, Impatiens repens, Dipterocarpus glandulosus, Semecarpus coriacea,

Dillenia retusa, Litsea longifolia, Kokoona zelanica, Ophiorrhiza mungos, Symplocos cochinensis,

Acronychia pedunculata, Pagiantha dichotoma,Coscinium fenestratum

 

 

 

Some of the climbers associated with Sinharaja forest.

 

(Scientific names)

Coscinum fenestratum, Tinospoa cordifolia, Entada pusaetha,Piper argytophyllum, Dalbergia pseudo-sissoo,

Toddalia asiatica, Uncaria thwaitesii, Dalbergia championii, Smilax Zeylanica

 

 

 

Special varieties of Orchids found on Sinharaja. 

 

Out of the 173 colourful Orchids which are a natural beauty to Sri Lanka, nearly 80 varieties are found in

Sinharaja. This record is a specially to the forest, 

 

(Scientific names),

Dendrobium maccarthiae, Anoectochilus setaceus, Zeuxine regia, Podochilus soxatilis, Podochilus malabaricus

Flickingeria macraei

 

 


Next we'll identify the Special living beings of Sinharaja forest

 

 

Special butterflies reported in Sinharaja forest

 

            Sri Lanka has recorded a total of 243 special varieties of butterflies of which about 100 of them are found in Sinharaja forest and 9 of them are endemic, at the same time it includes a large number of endangered species. (Scientific names),

 

Sri Lanka Five Bar Sword Tail Pathysa antiphates, Tailed Jay, Graphium agamemnon menides Common Jay,

Graphium doson doson bluebottel Graphium sarpedon teredon, Sri Lanka Coomon Birdwing Troides darsius,

Sri Lanka Blue Oak Leaf Kallima philarchus, Clipper Parthenos sylvia cyaneus, Sri Lanka Blue Mormon papilio helenus mooreanus, Red Helen Papilio helenus mooreanus, Common Mormon Papilio polytes romulus, Coomon Rose Pachiliopata aristolochiae, Ceylon Tree Nymph Idea isonia, Common Bush Brown Mycalesis perseus typhlus, Coomon Banded Pea Cock Papilio crino, Great Eggfly Hypolimnas bolina bolina, Common Sailer Neptis hylas varmona, Comander Moduza procris calidasa, Crimson Rose Pachilota hector, Banded Blue Pierrot Discolampa ethion ethion, Red Pierrot Talicada genutia genutia, Common tiger Danaus genutia genutia, Pioneer Belenois Qurota taprobana, Common Imperial Cheritra freja pseuda ojaffra, Glassy Tiger Parantica aglea, Dark Blue Tiger Triumala sepetentrionis musikanos, Blue Glassy Tiger Ideopsis similis exprompta, Common Indian Crow Euploea core asela, Common Leopard Phalanta Phalanta,Double - brandded Black Crow Eu, Southern Duffer Discophora lepida, Cingalese Bush Brown Mycalesis rama, Ceylon Forester Lethe dynaste,

White Four-ring Ypthima ceylonica, Jewel Four- ring Ypthima ceylonica, Common Evening Brown Melanitis Idea Ismene, Blue Pansy Junonia orithya patenas, Red Helen Papilio helenus, Sri Lanka Rose Pachliopta jophon, Fivebar Swordtail Graphium antiphates, Sri Lanka Tree Nymph Idea iasonia, Common Imperial Cheritra freja, Dark Blue Tiger Tirumala septentrionis,

Leopard Phalanta Phalantha, Blue Glassy Tiger Ideopsis similis, Southern Duffer Discophora lepida, Sri Lanka Bush Brown Mycalesis rama, Plum Judy Abisara echerius

 

 

 

 

Special fresh water fish associated with Sinharaja

 

Sri Lankan lakes have 82 special varieties of fish, out of these 26 of  them are living in the environment of the lake of Sinharaja considering it as their home, 14 of them are identified as endemic to Sri Lanka.  When considering the other  animals in Sinharaja, different types of fish are much less.  Some of the fresh water fish associated with Sinharaja,

(Scientific names),

 

Belontia signata, Schistura notostigma, Garra ceylonensis, Clarius brachysoma, Pauntis nigrofasciatus, Pantius singhala, Puntius pleurotaenia, Puntius cumingii, Puntius dorsalis, Puntius chola, Puntius bimaculatus, puntius sarana,Rasbora

wilpita, Rabora daniconius, Aplocheilus dayi, Sicyopterus halei, Sicyopus jonklaasi, Lepidocephalichthys jonk laasi,

Channa orientalis, Devario malabaricus, Acanthocobitis urophthalmus, Puntius nigrofasciatus,

 

 

 

 

Special types of amphibians seen in Sinharaja

 

 

In Sinharaja the environmental condition is highly suitable for the amphibians, so it has been mentioned that a very high variety can be seen in it. According to the reports of  107 amphibians  in Sri Lanka, 91 of them cannot be seen in any country in the world. It has been identified that it is endemic to Sri Lanka.Some of the amphibians that can be seen in Sri Lanka (Scientific names),

 

Adenomus kelaartii, Kaloula taprobanica, Ramanella obscura, Lankanectes corrugatus, Euphlyctis hexadactylus, Bufo kotagamai, Philautus cavirostris, Bufo noellerti, Philautus sordidus, Philautus decoris, Philautus stictomerus, Philautus silvaticus, Polypedates longinasus, Philautus ocularis, Philautus ocularis, Philautus cuspis, Philautus auratus, Phiautus papillosus, Philautus papilosus, Polypedates fastigo, Philautus simba, Philautus lunatus, Fejevarya kirtisinghei, Nannophrys ceylonesis, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis, Rana aurantiaca, Rana temporalis,

 

 

 

 

Reptiles that can be seen in Sinharaja

 

It is reported that in Sri Lanka, there are 175 poisonous less poisonous and non poisonous reptiles and snakes. Out of these 105 are identified as endemic to our country, Some of the reptiles that can be seen in Sinharaja.(Scientific names),

 

Cercaspis carinatus, Bungarus ceylonicus, Trimeresurus  Trigonocephalus, Ampihiesma stolatum, Cylindrophis maculatus,

Boiga barnesi, Boiga beddomei, Boiga ceylonensis, Boiga forsteni, Dendrelaphis bifrenalis, Dendrelaphis trists, Dendrelaphis cautolineolatus, Daboia russeii, Sryocalamus nympha, Python molursu, Aspidura drummondhayi, Aspidura prochyorrhos,

Aspidura guentheri, Ahaetulla nasuta, Oligodon arnesis, Oligodon calamarius, Oligodon sublineatus, Ptyas mucosa maximum, Xenochrophis asperrimus, Xenochrophis piscator, Remphotyphlops bramynus, Balanophis ceylonesis, Ahaetullu pulverulenta, Naja naja, Chrysopelea ornata, Rhinophis blythii, Haplocercus ceylonensis, Hypnale hypnale, Hypnale nepa,

Hypnale walli, Lycodon aulicus, Lycodon osmanhilli, Ceratophora aspera, Lyriocephalus scutatus, Ococryptis wiegmanni,

Ceratophora karu, Ceratophora erdaleni, Calotes dersilvai, Calotes calotes, Calotes liolepis, Calotes versicolor, Geckoella triedrus, Cytodactylus cracens, Cnemaspis podithanu, Hemidactylus depressus, Cytodactylus tayloi, Lankascincus gansi,

Lankascincus gansi, Mabuya macularia, Melanochelys trijuga thermalis, Lissemys punctata, Varanus salvator, Varanus bengalensis

 

 

 

Specific birds in Sinharaja forest. 

 

At present Sri Lanka has reported 483 birds, out of these it is recorded that 154 of them are  living in Sinharaja.

At the same time there are 33 endemic birds 32 of them are from Sinharaja. This shows the world the importance and validity of sinharaja, which is another good example.

 

Endemic birds of Sri Lanka that can be seen in Sinharaja

(Scientific names)

 

Galloperdix bicalcarata, Gallus lafayetii, Columba torringtonii, Urocissa ornata, Ocyceros gingalesis, Phaenicophaeus, Gracula ptilogenys, Garrulax cinereifrons, Turdoides cinereifrons, Pellornem fuscocapillum, Dicaeum vincens, Loriculs beryllinus, Psittacula calyhropae, Eumyias beryllinus, Pycnonotus penicilatus, Pycnonotus melanicterus, Megalaima flavifrons, Megalaima rubricapilla, Zosterops ceylinesis, Zoothera spiloptera, Zoothera imbricata, Centropus choloorhynchus, Bradypterus  palliseri, Glaucidium castanonotum, Sturnus senrx Otus thilohofmanni, Hirunda hyterrythra, Treron pompadoru, Chrysocolaptes stricklandi, Dicrurus lophorinus, Tephrodornis pondicerianus, Pomatorhinus melanurus

    

 

 

Other than the endemic birds more than 150 birds are found in Sinharaja forest.

(Scientific names)

 

Accipiter badius, Accipiter trivirgatus, Ictinaetus malayensis, Spizaetus nipalensis, Spilornis cheela, Spilornis cirrhatus, Falco tinnuculus, Chalcophaps indica, Psittacula cyanocephala, Clamator coromandus, Cacomantis passerinus, Batrachostomus moniliger, Ninox scutulata, Strix leptogrammica, Chloropsis anurifrons, Perocrocotus flammeus, Cyornis tickelliae, Muscicapa muttui, Terpsiphone paradisi, Hypothymis ozurea, Pitta brachyura, Luscinia brunnea, Hypsipetes leucocepholus,

Lole indica, Pycnonotus luteolus, Rhopocichla atriceps, Motacilla cinerea, Dendronanthus indicus, Gracula religiosa, Aegithinia tiphia, Lanius cristatus cristatus, Coracina melanoptera, Pericrocotus cinnamomeus, Pelargopsis capensis, Halcyon smyrnensis, Prinia inornata, Harpactes fasciatus, Picus chlorolophus, Megalaima zeylanica, Dupetor flavicollis, Ardeola grayii, Lxobrychus cinnamomeus, Egretta garzetta

 

 

 

Specific mammals living in Sinharaja forest

 

The total number of mammals recorded in Sri Lanka are 92, out of these 17 of them are endemic to Sri Lanka .Sinharaja forest has 45 mammals of these 11 are endemic to Sri Lanka, this too is anthor prominent factor to Sinharaja forest for its validity.

 

 

Some of the mammals that can be seen in Sinharaja.

(Scientific names)

 

Elephas maximus maximus, Panthera paedus, Prionailurus viverrinus, Moschiola meminna, Cervus unicolor, Loris tardigradus, Canis aureus, Muntiacus muntjak, Sus scrofa, Felis chaus, Ratufa macroura, Semnopithecus vetulus, Macaca sinica, Manis crassicaudata, Faunamubulus palmaarum, Funambulus palmarum, Funambulus sublineatus, Herpestes vitticollis, Herpestus indica, Viverricula indica, Hystrix indica, Petynomys fuscocapillus, Herpestes smithii, Lutra lutra, Kerivoula pictra, Pipistrellus ceylonicus, Megaderma spasma, Cynopterus sphinx, Hipposideros lankadiva, Rhinolophus rouxii, Rhinolophus beddomie, Rattus rattus, Suncus murinus, Bandicota indica, Srilankamis oheiensis, Mus booduga, Crocidura hikmiya, Lepus nigricollis,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How to Visit Sinharaja  Rain forest

 

From the Medaripitiya entrance get a wild tracker (please get a wild tracker before you reach the  entrance due to the lack of trackers available at the entrance.You are not permited to enter the forest without a tracker)  . There are tickets for local and foreigners. Buy the ticket which is suitable for you. There are two tracks. One track takes about 3 hours and you will meet a waterfall and you may be seen some endemic amphibians, wild animals, huge trees and different types of endemic species of birds and butterflies .You can enjoy your tour by having a  bath in the waterfall where natural water flows down .You can swim in the same place too.

  The other track takes about 5 hours and you will meet the same mentioned above and two other waterfalls with more trees and wild life which shows the natural beauty.

 

 

 

Travelling  Sinharaja Rain forest by public transpotation from Galle  

. .
  From the central bus stand get the Akuressa bus to reach Akuressa. The distance is about 40 km and it will take around 1 1/2 hours .From   Akuressa change your bus to Deniyaya.The distance from Akuressa to Deniyaya is 44 km. It will take 2 hours to reach Deniyaya.From Deniyaya get the bus Deniyaya -Mederipitiya  to go to Mederipitiya .There is cold climate here and you can enjoy beautiful tea estates.The distance is 15 km .From Mederipitiya around 20 minutes walk to reach Sinharaja forest entrence.

 

 Please note If you use the public transportation it will take a long time to reach sinharaja because of  stoping everywhere and changing the buses. But if you use private transportation like a car you can reach Sinharaja forest within 2 1/2 hours fom Galle

 

 

Book a Tour

 

Sinharaja Rain Forest

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